In Kazaria, a large amount of the traders and kazar notabilities were Muslims, not to mention the large parts of the solders of Kazan, whom mostly came from Hvarezm.
These hvarezmis appeared in the Hungarian tribe union in the IX century. We do not know the exact situation of the appearance.
Next to the seven conquering Hungarian tribes, 3 kabar tribes joined the union. These kabar tribes in one opinion broke away from Kazaria, but according to another source they escaped from there. The Emperor of Constantine writes about the above mentioned as the following: "It is known, that the so called kabar came from the kazar clan. It happened that there was a revolt against the government, which caused a civil war. The previous government had returned, from which many had been killed others had escaped and settled down with Turkic (note: Hungarians) on the land of Bissani, and they became friends and started to call themselves as Kabars."
From the words of the Emperor facts can be concluded, which says that the leaders of the Hungarians chose a leader of their own out of the united tribes of three kavar or kabar tribes.
The task of this leader or prince was to keep the connection with the leaders of the leading Hungarian tribes. Kabars were surly an inferior tribe, which can be proved by that fact, that as an armed auxiliary nation they served in the area of front and back defend .
So they were the first to go in a battle, and also they were the last to leave. Kabars became a double language speaking nation, and next to their own Turkic language, they could speak in Hungarian too, and then by 950 the Turkic language slowly disappeared. Out of the conquering Hungarians the rate of kabars was 20-30 %.
Next to kabars other Muslim nations had joined, like hvarezmi too.

In the Latin sources "Saracenus" was used for the meaning of Islamic. The Hungarian equivalent of this is Bezermin or rather Saracen.
The three kabar tribes were mostly Islamic.
Sámuel Aba, who was a king of Hungary, was a kabar too. His ancestors were the princes of the three kabar tribes. The Emperor of Constantine and Byzantium, who was born in puke, called the kabars as kavars. According to Anonymous, kabars got lands in the Mátra for settling down. From the XIII-XIV century it's known, that the lands of Aba clan were in this area too. (For example Abasár).
This was the time when Sámule Aba married to one of the youngest sisters of King Saint Stephen. Naturally, a condition for Sámuel Aba for this marriage was to became a Christian.
Thanks to this marriage, our first king entered into a strong alliance with kabars. Sámuel Aba established the Monastery of Abasár at the time of his marriage.
With the marriage and becoming a Christian, Sámuel Aba lost his title of chieftain, but in the same time he got into the Court of King Saint Stephen, which meant that he became a member of the advisory body, which lead the policy of the country. As the relative of the king he had an important position in it. He received the title of palace lieutenant, which title was organized on the basis of a German sample. This title was the later called the palatine position. Stephen knew that the Christianity of Sámuel Aba was superficial, so after the death of his son, Prince Emery, he did not sign Sámuel Aba as his follower but, the truly Christian Peter. King Stephen forced kabars, "Black Hungarians" for guarding the fields.
Naturally because of lack of information and sources, there are many different opinion about the early age of Hungarian Muslims.

After the Conquest, Muslim emigrations were all voluntary.
This emigration came from the area of Maghrib and Hvárezmi.
During the kings from the House of Árpád, two different legal opinions characterized the Hungarian Muslims. Either they could practice their belief, which mostly was available for the soldiers, or they became Christian under pressure and practiced their Muslim belief in secret.

When they were fighting against the Danube Bulgarians, these Muslims were at the head of the Turkic and agitated the enemy's ex Muslims to return to their traditional belief, to the Islam.
"If they have been under the Turkic's protection, they would have sent them back to the lands of Muslims."
Muslims could freely practice their traditional belief in Hungary before the time of Christianity. This was typical for any nomad state.
Al-Barki writes about this fact as the following: Turkic "ransom Jews and Muslims if they are in captivity in any province of the neighbourhood. Hungarians take good care of their guests."
The Káliz group were an important part of the nation, who settled from the area of Hvárezm.
Names of settlements: Káloz (Fejér county 1326: Kaluz, Kálócfa, Zala county 1426 Kalozfalua, Budakalász, Pest county, 1332-1337, Kaluz)
Hungarians were in contact with the Kaliz even before the conquest. Before the conquest, hvárezmi spoke the Iranian language and many of them lived in Kazaria and in the city of Bulgar. Later, the Old Iranian language was changed to Turkish.
From the XII century we have much information about "Káliz". A Byzantium history writer, Kinnamosz explains the battle (1150) of Hungarians and Byzantium, and he also mentions that other nations, who had different beliefs, were fighting with Hungarians too. These nations were kaliz and bissani.
According to him, kaliz nation had the same religion as the Persians. This happened in 1165.
The trade road between the Danube and the Tisza was named after this nation ("Káliz-Road")

Alán and úz were mentioned as Islam immigrants in the X century (they arrived with the second bissani migration).
Hungarians called the alan as varsány. It can be presumed, that the settlements or personal names called as varsány connects to the Islamic believer aláns.

Volga Bulgarians

During the reign of Prince Taksony, in the period of 960-972 many Muslim Volga Bulgarians moved to our Country with their leaders, called Billa and Bucsu. The name of Billa possible a changed type of Bilal which is a Muslim name. The Volga Bulgarians had to escape into our Country because of an internal power war.
They settled in the area of the present 15 March Square. A smaller group of them settled in other parts of Pest County (Bille and Bócsa puszta).
The settled leaders' progenies were the Etyei clan. In 962 Prince Taksony sent a Muslim believer Volga Bulgarian delegate to Italy, whose name was Salek. It's possible that this name comes from the name of Saleh. In this age, armed auxiliary nations of Muslims were settled in the area of Orsova by Al-Duna. Rusta Ibn and Gardézia Arabic travellers's studies explain the state and life style of the Volga Bulgarians.
"Bulgarians live in the neighbourhood of Slavonic and Kazar, along the Atil (Volga) river, which runs into the Kazár (Caspian) Sea. The king of the Bulgarian was called Álmus, and he was a Muslim. The rest of the Bulgarians were Muslim too. They had mosques and schools, and also muezzin and imam. They were dressing like Muslims their burial-grounds were similar to the Muslims too."
These studies came from the X. century. Fadlan Ibn wrote, that the Bulgarian prince asked the Baghdadi caliph to send scientists of religion to help his nation.

The delegate of the Bulgarian prince was a Kazar Muslim, and his name was Abdallah Ibn al-Hazari.
I would also mention that the direct neighbours of the Kazár were the Eastern Hungarians, whom Julianus found later.


Many Bissanis arrived to our Home too. Before the conquest they were our enemy, but as they lost battles against Byzantium and Kiev their state fall apart and became very weak.
During the kings of House of Árpád, the settled bissanis were univoltine Muslims and they were settled in Pest, Moson, Fejér, Szepes counties. One part of them was soldiers, but there were traders and agricultures too. We have to mention bissani Prince Tonzuba, who arrived to our Home with his nation during the reign of Saint Stephen. They belonged to the early bissani migration, and they possible weren't Islamic, but there could have been some Muslim believers already.
As he refused to became a Christian, he and his wife was berried alive in the Abádi rév. His soldiers were settled in different areas.

After 1100 many besenyő immigrated into our Home. The reasons for this were, that they lost many battles against Byzantium and also the Hungarian kings welcomed them as auxiliary army. Not to mention that fact, that we had many problems with Byzantium, who tried to expand their territories in this age.
Besenyő assimilation took the longest. They were soldiers, and also they lived in blocks which slowed down the assimilation.
By the XV Century, they were only speaking in Hungarian, wearing Hungarian costumes, but they still kept the knowledge of their origin. At the age of Árpád we can surly say, that 150 settlements were besenyő origin.


According to Anonymus, they arrived to our Home in the X. century. Bezermin (böszörmény) actually means all Muslims, and according to Anonymus, they were Volga Bulgarians or "Black Hungarians". Our oldest data come from proper names, and the oldest common names are bezermen, buzermen. XIII-XIV century's toponyms are Buzermen, Bezermen, Bozermen. Nowadays for example: Berekböszörmény (Hajdu-Bihar county, since 1291), Hajdúböszörmény (Hajdú-Bihar county, since 1246).
Professor Melich considered these Muslims' origin as bissani, Kuhn, palóc. Others considered them as Kazárs or besenyő. Many considered them as Muslims, speaking in Turkish.
Before the tartars, many travellers (for example: Carpini Plano) considered besenyő as a nation speaking the Kuhn language, and following the "szaracé" religion.
The final source of the word "böszörmény" is Muscleman. This name's Turkish variations are büsürman, bisirman, büsürmen. The last one is in Hungarian.
These above mentioned Muslim nations were archers, light horse fighters, traders. Their settlements were usually by an important trade route.
Bigger settlements were in the area of Mezőföld and Mátra, and also in the South part of the country.
In the area by the borders they were settled in the purpose of defending.
Smaller colonies were all around, and traders lived in all settlements.

Kazár Empire and the Islam

As in this period of time Hungarians were under Kazár occupation, and also as we had a strong connection with this nation later, we have to analyse this period of time in more detail.
Constantine wrote as the following: "Hungarians lived together with Kazárs for 3 years, and they fought in all battles with the Kazárs." Because of the content, many searchers stated that the period when Hungarians and Kazárs lived together lasted for 200-300 years. This makes us conclude that Hungarian depended on Kazárs.

The battalion of Muslim kalifat system, after occupying Debrecen, went up to the North where the Kazár Emperor had its golden age.
The Kazár Emperor was a typical nomad Emperor and its area was between Middle-Asia and the Crim-half Island. They met the Islam religion in Middle-Asia and on its land there were many Muslim traders.
The first unsuccessful battle was between 642-652.
In 642 Muslim Arabic battalions attacked that age's Kazár capital town, Balanjár.
There were many little battles, but then in 652 a big Muslim battalion attacked the capital city.
The strengthen capital disputed; the cavalry defeated the besiegers. During the battle the leader of the Muslim died too.
In the second Kazár-Arabian battle (722-737), first Kazárs could defeat the Arabians, but later the Kazár Emperor lost the battle.
In 722, Kazár defeated Arabians. Then the Arabic leader started another battle against Debrecen. Kazárs got prepared for the besiege by organizing a large battalion. Their leader was Barcgsiq's san.
Arabians still occupied the Kazár positions. They occupied Balanjar, and the Kazár defenders of the town escaped to Semender.
Jarrah turned back just before Semender, and he started his the next military expedition in the next year (725).

First he went against the aláns, but before anything could have happened, the new kalifa called him back and replaced his title by Maslamah.
Maslamah, the legendary leader, occupied one of the main defile of the Caucasus, Dariel in 727.
After the initial success, the kalifa recalled him too.
Jarrah reappeared in the Caucasus and he went against the new capital, Szarizsin, through the Dariel defile, but he couldn't reach any sockdolager. In 730 the war renewed between the Kazárs and Arabians. The leader Barcsiq, with a battalion with 300 thousand soldiers attected the Arabians through the Dariel defile. On the third day of the battle, the Arabian defeated. Jarrah prostrated, his wives and children fall into Kazár's hand. Kazárs used their successful position and they started to chase the escaping enemy, and also managed to get close to Moszul. Possible this was the golden age for the Kazár army power.

Arabians did not defer to their defeat. Szaid took the rains of the organization of the war against the Kazars. He had only a few successful battle, but the Arabian traditional blew it up.
After him, Maslaham was again who organized the battles against the Kazars. He crossed Derben, and reached Semendery without having any bigger trouble.
At this point a new leader was placed to the front of the Arabian battalion, his name was Marwan (732).
After the "traditional" battles, in 737, he started the final campaign. He crossed unexpectedly the Dariel and Derbenti defiles. Kazárs had to escape towards North. Arabian battalions followed them and destroyed everything on their way.

Arabians caught the Kagár by the Volga. The Arabian leader decided to negotiate instead of having a sockdolager. As the Kagárs were not in the position to give orders, their leader had to agree to the claims of Marwan, which meant that he had to become an Islamic believer. After this the Arabians left Kazária. This happened in 737.
Kazária survived. In the next 100 years they were managing all smaller nations in the area.
At this time Islam got more and more popular around the area.

I would like to notify that later the kazár kagán became Jewish believers, but this religion only stayed in this little group, or rather between immigrants from Byzantium.

Hungarians took the double prince state while they were living together with the Kazárs.
Maszudi writes about Kazárs as the following:
Apart from a big mosque (in the capital, which minaret run above the palace of the king, there are smaller mosques, to which schools are attached, where children learn to read the Koran. If Muslim would agree with Christians, the king of kazars would not have any power over them. "
"Muslims are the leader element in the Kazar Emperor, because the guardsman of the king is one of them. They came from the area of Kvhárezm, and they escape to the king of Kazár because of Black Death and wars (because of the spread of Islam). The present vezít a Muslim too, he is called Ahmed ben Kovaiah. Their judges are in their religion too."
Ibn Haukal writes about them as the following:
"Their living places are nemezsátrak, and there are only a few houses which are made of wattle. They have markets and bath but in this part of the city there are not so many Muslims. The number of the Muslims is over thousand and they have about thirty mosques. "
There were Muslims between Hungarians, which can be proved by Ibn Fadlan' notes:
"They arrived to the land of the Turkish nation, which was called Basgurd. One of them who became Muslim was a slave with us."

Cumanians and Tatars settled as an Islamic nation into our Home after the Tatar migration.

About Cumanians

The Cumanian tribes established a nomadic state which extend from the Caspian Sea to the border of the Hungarian Kingdom. They were displaced by Mongols.
There were Muslims and Christians among Cumanians, although most of them believed in shaman before the Mongol invasion.
Shatan (in Arabic sejtán) and prophet words comes from the Arabic vocabulary of Islam, which words if has came from the Christian vocabulary, wouldn't have had the same meaning with the Islamic. There are no data of any Islam among Cumanians before the age of Mongols, but surly there were many of them already.
The diplomacy of Cumanian had expanded after the appearance of Mongols.
The purpose of the delegation to Baghdad (1223), which was lead by the san of Köncsek leader, Kumarmis Kolcy, was to built up a defence union against Mongols and becoming Islam believer.
A similar delegation was sent for the purpose to make the Cumanians to become Christian. (1223)
Cumanians had kept an important trade connection with Egypt and Syria.

In this age, the most important trading issue for the north parts was human being, whom Muslims bought. The Ayubbids trained soldiers and gourdsmen out of the Northern Turkic slaves.
These were the mameluks (Arabic: mamluk: bought slaves)
At the first appearance of Mongolians, Russians and Kuhn were called for a union at the land of kipcsak. But it was all for nothing. Mongolian leader, Dzseb and Szübötáj damaged the unified battalions. After the defeat of the battle, Kötöny (kuthen) prince withdrew to the area of Havaselve with an important ethnical group of cumanians.

As the geological capability and the number of Cumanians didn't give the chance to win over the Mongols, the Cumanian prince sent a delegation to king of Béla IV.
He asked the Hungarian king to let his nation into the country, and also to protect them if needed. He offered his strong army power against the possible outside offensives. I won't go into detail about withdrawal of Cumanians and the Tatar migration.
Prince Kötöny was lynched by the angry crowd in Buda. Cumanians left the country on the South border with destroying everything.

Tatars left a huge damage. Béla IV, who we can easily call as the second founder of the state, called settler (hospes) into the country.
Turkish Muslims arrived from East, and Cumanias came back from the Balkan too.
The king settled them in the area between Danube and Tisza and by the river of Körös, Maros and Temes. On the assigned areas, they could live in a nomad style, and could keep their traditions and dressing.
As free men they had to go to war if the king asked them so, and they received the same privilege as nobles had.
Although they had to became Christian, for which the king sent ten Dominic monks.
Proselytising didn't go well, Cumanians stack to their traditional religion, and Muslims to Islam.
Béla IV kept a really good relationship with Cumanians.
He married his sun to a Cumanian. The Cumanian wife was from a prince family, according to many searchers she was a daughter of Cumanian prince. This marriage gave more power to the Cumanians in the Royal Court.
In the campaigns of the king, Cumanians had an important position as nomadic light horse fighters. Thanks to them he could beat the Austrian king, Frigyes many times.
The Islamic religion of the Cumanians can be proved by the fact that the Cumanian soldiers could have four wives, which can be seen at the age of king IV. László.

László IV is called also as Cumanian László, his mother came from a Cumanian prince family (Cumanian Erzsébet).
László IV was born in 1262, and he was already engaged to the Sicilian king's, Anjou I Charles, daughter in 1269.
In the first years of his reign he had many difficulties with the Hungarian nobles. They couth him and put him in prison many times. The internal difficulties became worse thanks to the situation in the German-Roman Emperor.
László IV supported Habsburg Rudolf (against the Chez king, Ottokár) and he also went to war with him.
In 1278, by Dürnkrut he won the battle against Ottokár. Chez king died in the battle too.
Cumanian László found help for policy and army for the internal anarchy at the Cumanians. Cumanian László took the traditions of Cumanians. He dressed like him, he ate with them. This was the time, when he got married to three Cumanian girls: Ajdun, Küpcsecs, Tolon. The Church could not watch this without a word, and sent a papal legate to the country. Two Cumanian main person (Uzur and Tolon) participated in the discussions.
The result of the discussion was: Cumanians can live in a noble freedom, the main judge of the Cumanians has to be the palatine. On the other hand the Cumanian had to settle for good and they all have to become Christian. They also have to reserve aggression and have to release all slaves part from the ones who they cought in abroad.
The king had agreed to everything, but he didn't keep his promise, and he continued where he stopped. He also couth the papal legate, and gave them to Cumanians.
There was no aggression as in the main time the king was arrested too.
On the next discussions the king was made to turn against the Cumanians.
Cumanians defeated in the Hódi battle (1280), even though they received help from the Cumanian Almadur battalion.
One part of Cumanians had stayed here, settled down and were christened, the others moved back to Havaselve.
In this period of time Cumanian László defeated the Tatars, who invaded till Pest, and made them to settle.
Even though László liked Cumanians, then later the Tatars too, and his style of living was similar to theirs, we can't surly state that he took the Islamic religion.
László loved a Cumanian girl, his mother was Cumanian, his friends were Cumanian, he fought with them, and a Cumanian was his assassin too.
He was on his usual way to the Cumanians in the spring of 1290, when 3 assassins killed him on the 10 of July.
He was berried in Csanád.
His murder was revenged by the Cumunian palatine, Mizse and its brother and brother of László's love.

About the eastern travel of Juliánus

Julianus writes the following about Muslims, who were a neighbouring nation with Hungarians:
"Julianus was left alone, and he didn't know his way, so he became a slave of a Mohammedans priest and his wife, who were on their way to Big-Bulgaria."
At this point he mentioned the town of Szuvar, which is Muslim, and the previous town before the Volga Bulgarians.
"Tatar nation is a neighbouring nation with us (Hungarians who live in their original home).
In this land of the Hungarians, the traveller met the delegate of the Tatar leader, who spoke in Hungarian, Russian, Cumanian language, German and Arabian.
According to this, the Hungarians who lived in the original land, had more information about Islam religion, lived in friendship with the Muslims, and surly some of the Hungarians were Islamic too.


Before the examination of those Muslim Tatars who settled in Hungary, I want to explain the history of the Mongolian Emperor and the Golden Horde.

Mongolian Empire

Dzsingisz khan, in his original name Temüdzsin was over his forties, when he united all Mongolian tribes. At this time the Mongolians choose him to be the big khan, and this was the time when he took the name of Dzsingisz khan.
Dzsingisz khan organized a nomad army based state and started to occupy the World.
In 1219-1221 he ravaged Middle-Asia, he entered to India, then he damaged the nomads in South puszta.
In 1223, in the battle by the river of Kalka, Mongolians had destroyed the Russian battalions, than they returned to the original land.
Dzsingisz khan died in 1227 from internal injuries, which he got when he fall of from his horse in one of the battle (at this time he was 70 years old).
After his death, the new big khan was not the oldest sun (Dzsocsi) of his, but his third one, Ögödej.
In 1236 Mongolian battalions took an offensive towards the West under the leadership of Batu (he was the san of Dzsocsi).
They defeated the Cumanians and the Volga Bulgarians. Surly this is the time, when Magna Hungaria was destroyed. This was the land of those Hungarians who stayed by the river of Volga.
Mongolians occupied and destroyed Moskow and Vlagyimir. In 1238 Russians defeated another battle (by the river of Szity) against the Mongolians.
Mongolians, with the leadership of Batu and Szübotáj, took an offensive against Hungary. Few years after the defeat of Béla IV , they had settled in our country.
At this time, Mongolian battalions were mostly consist of Turkish. Tatars were prevail, hint why the name of the Tatar migration.
The other san of Dzsocsi, Berke was the first who became Islam believer as the leader of the Golden Horde.
At this time the Mongolian aristocrats and army was mostly Muslim. The original living place of Berke khan was the Northern part of the Caucasus in the period of his brother's life.
Muslims arriving from the area of Iranian and Asia-Minor could only enter to the Golden Horne through Berke. Berke met the Islam in the South. The news that Batu's younger brother became Muslim was known in that time when Batu was still alive.
Halics and Lomodéria rebelled against the Tatar occupation, but Berke defeated it easily.
Berke wrote a letter to Béla IV wherein he offered to marry their children.
IV. Béla's san, Stephen should support the Tatar migration with quarter of the Hungarian army, for a 1/5 part share from the takings.
Berke would have not ask for any tax, and he would have offered piece.
He threatened that in that case if the Hungarian king does not except the offer, he will damage Hungary.
In this very situation IV. Béla asked for papal help and advice, but the pope could not give anything else then moral support and disallowance of the union.
IV. Béla tried to win time, by not answering. Berke was busy with the southern borders, so he had no time to care about Hungarians and Polish.
After Berke we should mention the following khans and emir: Mengü-Temür (1267-1280) and Telebuga khan (1287-1291), Nogáj emir.
Their name has connections with the settlement of Muslim Tatars in Hungary.
In 1285-1286 Tatars went towards the west with the leadership of Nogáj and Telebuga. First they took an offensive against Hungary and they reached Pest.
Possible Cumanian László had supported them.
Nogaj's offensive had not meant another national tragedy. They came from the North, they had destroyed the northern counties, and then they went to Transylvania where they met with a rebellion, so they decided to leave.
Many from Nogáj's battalion were arrested. Many Tatar clam settled in the country, whom László settled down. There were a few thousand soldiers, and most of them were Muslims.
For a long period of time they had the same privilege as the Cumanians, but soon they assimilated to the Cumanians because of the similarity of their languages.

Notes of Abu Hamid al-Andaluszi al-Garnati about the Hungarian Muslims

Al-Garnáti was born in Granada in 1080. He travelled most of the known world at that time. He had been in Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Hvárezm, Volga Bulgaria, Kiev, and he lived in our home for three years during the reign of II. Géza.

He called Hungarians as "básgird".
He writes about his time here as the following: "I lived with them for three years". I bought a slave girl, who was born in captivity for concubine. She was 15 years old, and more beautiful than the moon, her hair and eyes were black, and her skin as white as the camphor. She can cook, sew and count. I bought another girl too, she was eight years old, and she cost 5 dinar. From the first girl, I had a san, but he died. I set her free, and I gave the name of Marjam to her. I wanted to take her with me to Szadzsszin where I had a stable place."
He writes as the following about the Muslims in Hungary: There are thousands of Magrebi and Hvárezmi living here. Hvárezmis support the king, they pretend to be Christian, but they are Muslims really.
Magrebis were only serving Christians in battles, and they openly used the Islam (they are possible Turkic and besenyő).
"When I visited the progency of magrebis, they welcomed me with a lot of respect. I taught them for the science of religion."
". I was there to help them practice Islam religion"
We can conclude the following from the above stated: Part of the Muslims in Hungary was christened but they still practiced their religion in secret. Others, who were mostly in the army, were practicing openly their traditional belief, the Muslim. Surly they had received their privilege from the king.
Most of the Muslims in Hungary are unqualified in the Islam religion, possible not many of them went to a Muslim school.
As the Muslim belief stacked in their soul, it wasn't easy to make them to change their religion into Christian.
Al-Garnati also thought the Islamic legal rules of inheriting.
This can be proved by the following: "Earlier they didn't know about the Friday pray, but now I thought them the sermon too ."
The following statment characterizes the minority of the Muslims: "Nowadays many thousands places have sermons on Fridays, openly or in secret as their country is huge."
His notes about the armed Muslims are important too: "The Basgird king often damages the land of Byzantium. I said the following to the Muslims there: Do everything for the Saint war with the básgird king, as God will credit you with the result of the war on the doomsday.
They went out with him to the land of Constantinople and they defeated twelve battalion of the Byzantium Emperor and they caught many Muslims, Turkic from the kúnij battalion. I asked some of them: Why did you fight in the Byzantium battalion? They said: Each one of us got 200 dinar payment for it, and we didn't know that other Muslims live in this land (Hungary) too. I made sure, that they were transferred to the land of Byzantium and they could go back to Kúnija."
Kúnija laid in the steppe of southern Russia and Havaselve, Moldovia. It could have been a Kipcsak nomad state, where next to Cumanians there were many Besenyő too. This fact proves that in this area there were a strong expansion of the Islam religion before the Mongols too.
Byzantium Emperor settled Anatolian Muslim Turkish for army service by the river of Vardar. These Muslims have fighted against Hungarians many time. They had also border defending function. In this period of time many many Turkish Muslim escaped to Hungary which can be explained with that fact, that in Hungary they could freely practice their traditional, Islam religion, and did not have to became Christian.
These soldiers were settled as border guards.
In Al-garnati's notes we can compere the situation for Muslims in Byzantium and in Hungary: "The leader of Constantia vistied with the purpose of piece, and bought many gifts like treasures and Muslim prisoners of war.

One of these prisoner of war, who came back from Byzantium to Hungary explained: The king of Byzantium asked: What is the purpose of that, that the Básgird king entered into our country and damaged it? This wasn't the way before. He got the following answer: The king of Básgirs has a battalion of Muslim soldiers, who can practice their own traditional religion, and they asked the king to enter into your country to damage it. Byzantium king said the following: I have Muslim dependants but they are no help for me in a war. The following answer was said to him:
Because you make them to became a Christian. The king answered the following: From now on I won't make them to be Christian, I'll build mosques for them too, so they will fight with me."
From the above mentioned we can see that Hungarian Muslim soldiers had a better quality of life in Hungary as they could practice their own religion and traditions. This proves that in this period, Hungary was an appealing place for Islam immigrants.
The leader of Islam nations were in a direct contact with the king of Hungary.
Al-Garnati had a personal relationship with the king II. Géza.
Let's see some notes for this:
"he practice the same religion as Frankish, although he does war of conquest against them and he chatches prisoners of war. Many nations are terrified of his conquests as he has large amount of soldiers and valour."
"When he heard that I forbid wine for Muslims, but allowed them to have four wives and concubines, than he told me the following: this is not rational, wine makes the body stronger, but women makes it weaker. I said the following: The law of Muslim is different from Christian. Christians drink wine instead of water, and they don't feel drunk, so it makes them stronger. Muslims only want the drunkenness. They only want the enjoyment, and they lose their mind, they fornicate and kill. They would sell their weapons, horses and all their wealth.
These Muslims are your soldiers, and in that case if you would order them to fight, they wouldn't have any horses, weapons or wealth, they would have spent everything on alcohol and enjoyment. If you would recieve these information, you would have to kill them, or would have to give them new weapons and horses, which they would spend again.
Concerning concubines and wives, it's very suitable for Muslims since they are very heated people. Also don't forget, that they are your soldiers and if they have wives and concubines, they can have more babies, which means than you'll have more soldiers.
The king said the following: Listen to this old man because he is wise, get married as many time as you want. Géza was the one, who confronted the Christian fathers and allowed concubines for Muslims.
While Islam was an eastern enemy for Byzantium, it was a union for Hungary.
The Muslim battalion helped the king against any (internal or external) enemies.
The kings of House of Árpád could only allow Muslims to practice their religion if they defecated them from the law of Christian. In the same time, they defined those obligations which Muslims had to do for the king. It sure that before the Tatar migration and until the reign of II András the Muslims were equal with Hungarians, in many tasks they had even more privilege.
During the reign of II Géza Islam had its golden age in Hungary.

Yaqut Arabian lexicon writer's notes complete the notes of Al-Garnáti about Muslims in Hungary. Yaqut met a group of the Hungarian Muslims in Aleppo in 1220, who were studying Islam.
When he asked about Hungary, the Muslims said the following:
"Our country is over Constantinople in one of the Empire of Francs nation, whose name are al -hunkar (Hungarian). We, Muslims are the subject of their king. In one of the border we have 30 village, and each one of them is basically a little country (town), but the king of al-hunkar doesn't let us to build a wall around them, because he is afraid that we would rebel against him. We are living in the middle of Christian countries. Our language is the language of Francs, our dressing is theirs too, and we serve with them in the army. We only fight against those who are enemies of the Muslims."
According to the notes, most of the Hungarian Muslims belonged to the Hanifita Muslim Law School.
The Hungarian Muslims clothing was the same than Hungarians and they were speaking in Hungarian.
The difference only showed in the religion.
Muslim, who did not live with their owns, assimilated.

Slow assimilation of the religion and the period of decline

Before I would show those facts, which proves the assimilation of the Muslim in Hungary, I will introduce the golden age of the Islam.
At this period of time, the rate of the Islam, who practised their religion openly were 5-8% compering to the population. 3-4% were practising the religion secretly.
Hungarian kings tried to follow the policy of assimilation, but many times the law for these matters weren't or just partly been executed. As there were no real Muslim minority living in one place, Muslim who lived in the middle of the country could assimilate quite easily, not like the ones who lived by the border.
This jurisdiction was on going since I Saint László. This is not a coincidence, as this is the time when the call for crusader started. Saint László was charged to do the crusaders by the Pope, but his death came along.

In the thim of Saint László, one of his law mentions the following: "Those ones too, who had been called as Wzbég (Üzbég)."
The above mentioned nation was an Islam Turkic army nation, who were solely serving the king. If they were in a private serve, it had to be reported to the king. The king ordered the Üzbég back to his service.
The I Code of Law of Saint László orders as the following:
"9. About traders who are called as Islamic.
If traders, who are called Islamic would return to their traditional religion after being Christioned, should be settled in a different village far from their old one.
Those who came out innocent from the investigation should stay at their original place."
It shows that László was only sanctioned the ones who became Christian, than returned to the traditional religion. Muslims could practice free their own religion.

At the age of Könyves Kálmán, the crusades to Jerusalem had started, some of them trough Hungary. That king, who firstly stated that "there are no witches", was the first one who started the Muslim assimilation.

From the First Code of Law of Könyves Kálmán:
"About sanction for the insistent of Islamic to their traditional religion.

If someone sees an Islamic to fast or keep off from food or pork or from bathing should send the Islamic to the king, who will receive a part from his wealth."

Fast meant the Ramadan, and as we can see, the legislatives knew the traditions of Islam, as they even knew about the inhibition of pork in the Muslim religion. They didn't mixed Islam to Jewish. Bathing meant the ritual bathing wich came with praying. We know that in this age people were not neat, so it appeared if someone was bathing several times in a day.

"About the remove of the Islamic
We order in each Islamic village to build a church, and that it should receive charity.
After this church was built, half of the Islamic village should move to another village."

This shows a planned assimilation policy, which essence is the following: with dividing the Muslim villages, building churches, making them in a new area with Christians, makes them to be slowly a catholic. These Muslims were only different from the Hungarians in their traditions and religion, as they spoke the same language.

"Marriage of the Daughters of Islamic.
No one should give their daughter to a husband from the same nation, only to our nation."

Earlier Muslim girls only could marry to a Muslim man, but Muslim men could choose a wife from the nation of Könyves Kálmán.
As the nation was patriarchal, with this law, it was ensured that the unborn Muslims will grow up in a christened area, so the Islam wife will have to assimilate to the new situation.

"About dining of the Islamic.
If any Islamic invites guest for a meal, all of them should only eat pork."

The king could of thought that making them eat pork would give them a moral damage too, which could fasten the assimilation.
Pork is forbidden for Islamic.
This was not true for the Jewish.

Summarizing the law of Könyves Kálmán:
He forbid the mixed marriage for Jews, and also forbid for Jews to keep a Christian slave. He tried a total assimilation policy with Islamic.

The Church was the first who attacked the privilege of Muslims, and kept pushing the king to urge Christianity for Muslims.
Church ordered to take taxes and duty from Muslims and give this privilege to Christians.
Many Muslim in economical position became Christian after this order, but they kept practice their traditional belief in secret.
Church wanted to take the right for charging Muslims and Jews from the king.
Because of the above mentioned there were a conflict between the king and church.
We can notify one thing: There were no real sanction or revenge mentioned in any law, nether in any later documentation.

From the above mentioned we can see that at many Hungarian kings the king's power prevailed. In the period before the Golden Bull the central power became weaker, so nobles and the Church could force the king to reduce the economical power of Islam believers or even take their position.

II Andárs (1205-1235) gradually brought a new economical policy in. It's point was to bring in a rental system instead of redistribution of land and direct tax payment.
King's income came from the payment of the rental fee (salt, duty and rental fee of mint). Whit this new system the Church lost some source of income and also the non Christian believers (Muslims and Jews) became invulnerable. For these II András was under a lot of pressure, and we should not forget that mint practicing resorted to fall the value of money.
Basically the nobles and the Church forced the king to back out before the start of crusade in 1217. The church started to pay more attention to the Muslims and Jews, and the pope was informed about the Hungarian situation too. At the same time, the Church realized slow growths in assimilation at the Islam by the quiet evangelize.

The Hungarian Islam knew and used the patient of religion, which was a basic element in the Islam too.
I quote the 256 poem of the 2 surai from the Koran: "There are no compulsion in religion."
There were a growth in Muslim population as they had the privilege for polygamy. Our kings laid many different laws about the sanction for those Muslims who became Christian, but still practicing their traditional religion secretly.
The first important law, Golden Bull broke the economical power of the Muslim.

"Against the position of chamber official for Islamic and Jews.
The following positions should be filled in with the noble of the Emperor, and not with Islamic and Jews: bailiffs of chamber, money changers, salt traders, and tax collectors."

This was a real attack against the faithful money collectors and members of the chamber. In the XIII century, nobles against the central power, and the Church realized who stands for the interest of the kind. They joined with the Pope and started a religion war against the Muslims.
Middle class and serviens became against Muslim as no one likes the money collectors and money changers.
To show how important was for the Church the economical power of Hungarian Muslims, I show a part of IX. Gergely letter: "Saracen and Jews dominate over the Christians, and many Christian seeing their good quality of life and freedom, stopped being Christians. Christians marry to Saracen and the other way round too."

II. András did not executed consequently the order of the Church and Golden Bull for the Muslims.
This is the reason why orders against the Muslim are in the renewal of the Golden Bull in 1231.

"Against the position of officials for Saracen and Jews.
Leader position in mint, saltbay and other state office should not be filled in with Saracen or Jews."

The Golden Bull had to be renewed and validated and as we can see its text had been changed too.
The foreign archbishop of Esztergom, Róbert used the most strict church sanction in 1232: he took the whole country under interdictum. He explains the purpose of his actions in a letter to bishop of Veszprém: ". the king codification of law and promised that he will keep to it. In this law there was a part which said no Jews or Islamic can be in a leader position of the chamber.
But this law was disdained . Even Christians became Saracen believers as they could see the better quality of life."

Even Samuel, the previous bailiff of chamber couldn't escape, who fall under suspicion of heresy, and who supported and defended the Muslims.
The prelate writes about Muslims as the following: We forbid for Christians to contact Saracen even in trade or contract or in any form, until Saracens send off all Christened, willing to get Christened or san of Christened, who are either Hungarian, Bulgarian, Kuhn or belonging to any other nationality, who are slaves or living free."
It can be seen, that laws of Muslim willing to isolate them.
The total isolation and forbidding contacting with Christians would of damage and grow poor them if they had stacked to the law. But this was not enough for the Hungarian bishops.
Disaster after disaster came for Islam. In August, 1233 the Church make the old king to except the so called Bereg Agreement.

- Against the position of officials for Islamic and Jews
From now on, we don't fill the leader positions of chamber, mint, salt and duty with Jews and Islamic.
We don't fill the position next to the leaders with them.
- About distinction of Jews by a sign.
We will distinct Jews and Islamic from Christians with a sign.
- Against holding Christian slaves for Jews and Islamic
We won't allow for Jews and Islamic to buy and keep Christian slaves.
- About the control of these orders
We promise, that we and our progeny will send the palatine or someone else once a year the check that these orders are kept. We will send a Christian, who will take an oath to faithfully control the situation.
- About the sanction of Islamic and Jews living with Christians
If we find some Christian to live with Islamic, or some Islamic who keeps Christian slave, or Christians who came from Islamic, or Islamic who live with Christian woman either as wife or any other way.
These Christians or Jews and pagan should be punished by taking all wealth from them, and make them eternal slaves of the Christians. "

These law shows the pressure of the Church and that the total assimilation was the intention. Muslims had only two choices left: being christened or the migration. We can also see from the law, that the middle aged Islam believers should have a large amount of wealth. The Church had the most important part in the controlling.
Béla IV asked for a dispensation from the pope for some of his Islamic members in the chamber, as he needed their economical knowledge.

The first paragraph said, that the king will not make any Jews or Islamic in a position of official, so Christened can not be in oppression.
Will not allow that Jews or Islamic could keep Christian slaves. He will make sure that these people can be differed by outside signs. Those Jews, Islamic or pagan who keeps a Christian slave or live with a Christian wife should loose their all wealth, and the king should sell them as a slave to a Christian. The king tried to refuse to make these orders, but after the regulation of Bereg in 1233 he couldn't do anything else. These strict orders were born in a situation when the states of Holy Land fought for their life against Muslims.

It's interested, that Christians waited for help form the Mongolians against Muslims.

Through many centuries the Hungarian Muslims became a part of the Hungarian nation.
When the independent religion commune had ended, they assimilated to the Hungarians in the point of population and in the point of religion into the Christians.
The Islam religion life had finally ended during the reign of I Nagy Lajos. He damaged the last dzsámi in 1350, which was in the Nyírség.
At the appearance of reformation ex Muslims who became Christian started to support the new.
It was a long way from I Saint Stephen's letter to his sun Imre, which mentioned the settlement of the "Guests" until the appearance of law about the total assimilation.

In their language and dress they were the same then Hungarians, they were only different in their religion.
Naturally their wealt made the Church and nobles envie.
Saint Stephen main task was the assimilation of the pagans into the Roman Christianity, he had no real attention of the Jewish and Islam minorities. But naturally the idea of the ctrusade had not appeared yet.
This is how the contemporary Muslims could stay up for many hundreds year.
Hungary was the most Western country (part from Andaluzia) where Islam believers appeared in a larde number.
Hungary laid at a cultural break line, this was the place where Christianity met with Byzantium religion and Islam.
Jews could leave more free here than in any Western state.

Memories from these periods

The survived names of the settlements, jurisdiction text stile, coins from the middle age, shows the presence of Muslims in the age of House of Árpád.
Let's see the surviving names of the settlements.
The Muslim nation' origin was mainly Turkish, but tere were some Iranian nations.
Before the Tartar migration 210 settlement was filled with Muslims.
László Réthy's work, which was published in1880, he mentioned an important point of view. "Saracens or Islamic trader had not disappeared from Hungary with the Tartar migration, but only assimilated to Hungarians, and kept on going in their earlier activities.
The basis of this statement is that Jakab and János Saracenus brothers are mentioned as earls, as chamberlain of Pécs-Szerém and Buda in a document originating from 1352. (As we know Saracenus has the same meaning than Saracen which means the Muslim believers.)
There is a Saracen head in the coat of arms of the Mesztegne Saracen clan, which symbol appears in many coins of Nagy Lajos.

In the silver coins period in the XII century, on the silver coins of the Hungarian kings, Eastern affects appear: half moon, the text of God is one ("Illahi", Allah) in Arabian letter style. In the copper coins of IV Stephen other Eastern affects appears next to the above mentioned: The first line of the Koran (Biszmillah al-Rahman al-Rahim, which means in the name of Merciful and Mercy).

I would like to write down some of the results of digs, which proves our connection with Islam by the evidence of coins.
- grave evidence of Szeged-kiráyhalom, where there were coins of Ismael ben Ahmed Balkhban (906)
Text of the coins: "There is no other god then the only Allah"
Round text: from the Koran, 30:3-4
- Grave evidence of Galgócz, where there were coins of Naszr ben Ahmed (918-919).
These are szamadina origin coins, it was in a regular use in the area of Middle-Asia in the X century. We could call it as a world trade money as it was popular (from Middle-Europe to Altáj)
Text: "There is no god, just Allah, and he has no partners"
- There were Sammanida coins in the grave evidence of Bodrogvécs
Dirhems were found in the border of Kecskemét
From the end of the reign of Nagy Lajos, for about 150 years there were mostly just travelling traders of Muslim, but on the South border of our country, there were the Ottoman and Turkish Empire.

Denomination of Islam belief ones

Black Hungarian
Black komán


Abu-Hámis al-Garnáti trips in Eastern and Middle Europe
Imre Adorján: Mohammedans with Hungarians
Koestler Arthur: The thirteenths tribes
Stephen Fodor: Notes
Ignác Goldziher: The Islam
Gyula Kristó-Ferenc Makk: The Árpáds
Gyula Kristó: Not Hungarian nations in the middle aged Hungary
Lajos Ligeti: Turkish connections of the Hungarian language before the conquest and in the age of House of Árpád
András Róna-Tas: The conquering Hungarian nation
Zsolt Udvarvölgyi: Religion sociology of the Hungarian Islam
Stephen Vásáry: The Golden Horde


Plan of the nations of Eastern-Europe in the IX century

Muslim belief nationsin the age of the House of Árpád

This is how ancient Hungarian Muslim could have looked like
(Their dressing was similar to other shaman belief nations
because of their eastern aspect)

Coins, Arabian signs from the middle aged Hungary

98. VS On the right side - II Béla, on the left - IV Stephen with lilies sceptre and orb
Title: Béla Rex and Sts Rex. Under the half moon (illallah=In the name of God)
RS Virgin Mary with lilies sceptre, title: Sancta Maria
99. As the previous one but the title can't be read
100. As the previous one, but the title is smaller
101. Copper coin with an Arabic title
102. As the previous one but with golden coating
103. As the previous one but the title can not be read, it's a copy of an Arabian writing

Migration of Hungarians


II. The Ottoman (Turkish) occupation

Before we analyse in detail the appearance of the Islam in this period, I would summaries the history of the Ottoman - Turkish Emperor from its establishment until the division of Hungary.
Naturally I'll have to announce many details which don't concern directly Hungarian Muslims for the better understanding. But I believe this story can be whole only this way. There are many searchable facts regarding this period. May all Hungarian written documents had been analysed, but there could be more found in Turkey which could give new information for the researchers.

Short history of the Ottoman - Turkish occupation until 1526

Four hundred Turkish families settled down with their chieftain, Ertogrul, to Anatolia, for the invitation of the related seldsuk - Turkish tribe. The area of the tribe was between the Seldsuk and Nikaiai Empire.
When the Seldsuk Empire disintegrated, the Ottoman emirate was only one out of the ten emirates. Ertogrult was followed by his san, Osman, as the leader of the tribe, which at this time was not so important. He took the title of "gázi" to show that he believed in the armed expansion of the Islam. His battles had changed that time's economical and social conditions.
Inflowing outlanders had disintegrated the frame of the tribe. The nomad animal husbandry could not supply for the bigger numbered army. Such an army state was established, which could only survive with continues booty acquiring and expansion. Out of the little tribe area of Osman soon became a fast growing armed state.
Osman's name soon became a notion. His people were called as Osman or Ottoman (in Turkish they were called as osmanli). For the continuous expansion a professional army was needed. Osman named a beglerbej as a leader. Rumelia (European) and Anthology title was in use after the large expansions.
The basis of the economy was the inherited high levelled agriculture. At that area where the natural conditions were given, the Greek, Armenian and Slavonic farmers used öntözéses földművelés and brought new kinds of fruits. When Byzantium defeated a battle, the agricultural workers didn't escape, but only the landowners. For their new landowners they had to only pay the head tax (dzsizje) of the non Muslims, which was less than the Byzantium tax. The policy of expending was continued by the san of Osman, Orhan (1326-1360).
Byzantium could not resist, because of the weak economical situation and continues throne wars. The internal wars and interventions of Hungary, Venice and Genoa have made Balkan (in Turkish - Rumelia) weaker, so it seemed a good aim for expanding purposes.
Orhan intervened in the power war of Byzantium, and he ensured the throne to one of the pretender, who was his father in law, then when he was dethroned, he occupied Gallipoli and the North part of the Sea of Marmora. In the same time he expended in Middle-Anatolia, and they occupied Ankara in 1354.
The battalion of I Murad sultan occupied the second most important city of Byzantium, Drinapole (Edirne in Turkish) in 1361. This became the new seat of the sultan in 1365, showing that the middle of their Empire moved to Europe. In 1371, Ottoman battalion beat the unified Serbian states by the river of Marica, and with this they occupied Macedonia. Ottoman occupied Sofia, Nis and Saloniki.
In 1389, in the first battle of Rigómező (Kosovo Polje) the united Serbian, Bosnian, Bulgarian and Albanian states lost again against the Ottoman. Even though the unified states had bigger battalion, they could not do anything against the well organized Ottomans.
From 1390, Ottoman battalion continually damaged the area of the Southern borders of Hungary.
Nor the Hungarian vassal or the Balkan buffer states (Bosnia, Serbia, Havasalföld), nor the success of János Hunyadi, or the revolt of Skander bey (original name: George Kasrtiota), could stop them. After the victory of the second Rigómezei (Kosovo Polje) war, Ottoman had settled in the Balkan for a long period of time.
In 1451 the father of II Mohamed sultan (1451-1481) left an Emperor which was more than half a million square meter.
II Mohamed sultan made the Emperor to become a Great Power. Posterity gave the pre name of Conqueror (in Turkish Fatih).
In 1453 II Mohamed occupied Byzantium. A new capital was born for the Ottoman Emperor which was called Istanbul.
His occupation was stopped in Hungary by János Hunyadi in the Nándorfehérvár war, and later the Black Battalion of King Mathias stopped the occupation plans of the Ottomans.
Black sea becomes the Ottomans inland in 1475.

In 1512 Deadfall Selim sultan (In Turkish Javuz) occupied all saint placed of Muslims. Jerusalem, Medina, Mecca, and Egypt and thanks to this, he became a khalifa. With this title, the neighbouring Empire of Hungary becomes a place where the Emperor was the principled leader of Muslim world.
In 1520 the follower was Suleiman sultan (1520-1566).

Islam in Hungary during the Turkish occupation

After the Mohacs war Suleiman sultan entered to the Buda castle in 1526.
He rested here for the second time when he was on his way to Vienna, and then a month later he came back for a few days with an unorganized, escaping battalion.
He hadn't joined the capital city of the Hungarian Kingdom to his Emperor, but he gave it back to the vassal, János Szapolyai.

In 1540 King of I János died. It seemed like the Hungarian nobles who were loyal to the baby king; János Zsigmond couldn't protect the king's interest.
I Suleiman sultan interfered in the Hungarian situation.
He beat the battalion of Ferdinand in Buda, and then he occupied it with a trick and joined it to his Emperor. As we know, with this the country had split into 3 parts.
The middle part of the country was under Ottoman rule for nearly 150 years. After the occupation of Buda, the numbers of the occupied parts were increasing. The Ottoman Emperor and the Hungarian Kingdom were protected by many border castles.
After the occupation the immigrations had started too, mostly from the Balkan.
There were Turkish, Muslim, Bosnian, Albanian, Christian from the Balkan as traders, craftsman.

There were no planed settle for Muslims in Hungary, not like all around in the Balkan. There were not many Muslim settlers in the northern parts of the Balkan, so there were non left for Hungary. All Muslim who settled in Hungary come voluntarily.
These Muslims lived in those parts where Turkish soldiers were living.
They had to serve the usual service for these soldiers.
For example: tailors for clothing, confectioners, professionals for building and operation of bathes, etc.
Out of the many immigrants there were not only Muslims but Christians too. This is how many Serbians had settled in Hungary too, who were called as rác.
Muslim colonies were established, mosque, common bathes were built. Unfortunately not many existing today.
Examples from 1570: Vác - out of 374 houses 189 was owned by Muslims.

In the Hungarian part of the city there were 2 churches at the most. Around them there were single storey houses. As it was a hard time for them, they were very poor. The castle area and the area of Muslims were clean. The outside of this area was pretty worn. There were many worn djami, bathes, mosques, and many deformed rebuilt buildings, which brought the stile of the two different culture. In out side there were markets, on the other side there were bazaars.
Hungarian, Slav and Turkish language could be heard on the streets.
The picture of the towns was reformed by the stile of the conquerors. At the start, the Christian churches were rebuilt into mosques, so Muslim believers could practice their belief. This happened as the following: sacred images were whitened; statues, altar and all ornaments were taken.
The direction towards Mecca was signed.

Minarets were built next to the mosques, or in the tower of the bell. . In the mosques, benches were taken and carpets were laid down on the surface. Next to the mihrab - this showed the way towards Mecca - a wooden or stone pulpit was built, which was used on the Friday service. This related to djami, because the Friday service can be only hold in here. Mosques were used for daily prayers. Usually libraries, elementary sometimes secondary schools were built next to the djami. Buda had the most communal bath, but every centre had some. They didn't build many living houses; mainly they rebuilt the old ones to their stile.
The settled craftsmen, traders established guilds, and lived in separate parts, streets. This separation can be seen in the religion. For example Jews had separate districts in Buda. Religion scientists (imam) were sent to Hungary from the Balkan, to help Muslims to practice correctly their religion. Imams were often the leader of the Friday service. There were preachers (hafiz, váiz) who helped to solve the daily problems of the believers.
The Friday service meant a political opinion as the sultan was blessed in every service.
Beside of the state buildings, there were private religious schools, place of worships, monasteries. Many reach people, pasha gave charity to the establishment or maintain of these buildings. One of the most famous buildings is the Gül Baba' tomb, which is in Rose hill.
There was Hizir Baba' Closter in Eger (but this doesn't exist now), Idris Baba' tomb in Pécs.
In the Turkish cemetery, a tomb was built on the grave of Suleiman pasha. Unfortunately these structures can be known from memories. Sokoli Mustafa (1566-1578) pasha of Buda made the most sacrifice for the Turkish architect and Islam religion. Sokoli Mustafa governed Buda for twelve years. This period was the longest one what a pasha of Buda spent in this title. Other pashas of Buda had spent much effort on the Turkish architect. Rüsztem pasha built a mosques and bathes in Esztergom. Murteza pasha of Buda renovated and built djami, bathes castles and castle walls in Buda and in other centres.

Turkish possession in the Ottoman occupation

There were two different structural and territorial units in the Turkish Emperor. One of them was the joined territory of the central a

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